Abstract: Beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) involves fusion/melting of a pool utilizing powder or wire feed, although beams can be used to sinter a thin powder layer without melting the powder. In contrast, friction stir processing (FSP) is a solid-state non-melt process that welds metal layers building a structure which is termed friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM). FSPAM utilizes a non-consumable tool with a tip and shoulder that with spinning forges into the layer being added at select rotational speed and linear forward movement at speeds up to 100 inches per minute providing very high build rates. Metal is plastically transferred from the front of the tool pin, retained under the shoulder, to the back of the pin producing a very fine to nanomicrostructure exhibiting higher mechanical properties than beam (AM) and usually higher than wrought. The FSAM solid-state non-melt process can repair/produce componentry at high rates in all basic alloy systems.
Author: James C. Withers
Keywords: Non-Beam Additive Manufacturing, Friction Stir Processing, High Mechanical Properties by AM