1st Paragraph: There is a large demand for transparent conducting electrodes to use in optoelectronic devices. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is still the most extensively used transparent conducting material in the world, because it has an excellent combination of high optical transmittance and low sheet resistance that is difficult to beat. ITO films and coatings can be mass produced by vacuum-based methods and solution-processed methods. While vacuum-based methods are typically used for commercial fabrication, solution processing methods can have advantages such as being able to use ambient conditions, have less waste and below cost . However, even though similar optical properties can be easily obtained, the sheet resistivity of solution-processed ITO films is usually one order of magnitude higher than for those made by vacuum-based methods. One possible reason is the existence of air pores or inadequate contact between nanoparticles in the ITO films. A quantitative characterization of porosity can help understand the microstructure and improve the quality of solution-processed ITO films.
Authors: Ning Xia, Valeria Lauter, and Rosario A. Gerhardt
Keywords: Indium Tin Oxide, Porosity, Neutron Reflectometry