Abstract: Copper tube and pipe ruptures due to freezing can be distinguished from those produced by overall, system-wide hydrostatic pressure increases. The distinction is observed as long as the fluid line freeze-rupture process is understood. In addition, macroscopic inspection of the involved systems or materials are all that is required to make this distinction.
Authors: G. Wayne Maltry
Keywords: copper, freeze, hydros tatic, pipe, pressure, rupture, tube