Abstract: Over the past decade numerous metallurgical and technological enhancements have been developed within the niobium-containing steel bar, plate, sheet and long products sector. These developments not only encompass traditional low carbon steels but now transcend into medium and high carbon steels. Different niobium-containing product designs incorporate mechanisms such as precipitation behavior, grain refinement, recrystallization and achievement of the desired microstructure. Specific applications illustrate the metallurgical global objective toward a more homogeneous grain size through the cross section of a given product. Improved steel robustness contributes to reduced internal and external quality problems during steel production. More robust steel is the end-user driver across the automotive, energy and structural global segments. The steel application robustness may be measured in terms of stretch flangeability, toughness, fatigue, fracture toughness, yield-to-tensile ratio consistency, stress-strain behavior under low and high strain rates and overall ductility at given operating service temperatures dependent upon end user requirements.
Authors: Steven G. Jansto
Keywords: Energy absorption, Grain refinement, Manganese, Niobium